Thick capacitive meshes on polyimide substrates 358k
Arne Lüker, Oren Sternberg, Herbert Hein, Joachim Schulz and Karl-Dieter Möller; Infrared Physics & Technology 45 (2004) 153–157
Abstract: Thick capacitive meshes of nickel on substrates of thickness 25 µm have been produced by
electroplating into a photoresist mould. The Micro-Stripes program by Flomerics has been used for the interpretation of
the experimentally measured far infrared spectrum. The measured reflection resonance mode and the transmission wave guide
well with the analytical predictions.
Diamond high speed and high power MEMS switches 321k
J. Kusterer, E. Kohn, A. Lüker, P. Kirby and M.F. O’Keefe; 4th EMRS DTC Technical Conference – Edinburgh 2007
Abstract: Future phased array transmit/receive (T/R) modules require wide bandwidth, low loss switches to replace
the circulator at the power amplifier (PA) output. Circulators have inherent drawbacks including high cost, inability to
integrate and physical size. Currently protection of the low noise amplifier (LNA) is required because of poor isolation.
Consequently a cost, size and weight reduction as well as increased performance are expected when using a T/R switch.
Currently no wide bandwidth switches with high power handling capability are available. Field Effect Transistor (FET)
implementations lack either power or bandwidth and sacrifice insertion loss. MicroElectroMechanical (MEM) RF switch technology
has been demonstrated to exhibit very low insertion loss with multi-octave performance at microwave frequencies however,
silicon or GaAs MEMS switches lack high power handling capabilities. As a consequence of the physical properties of diamond,
thermal conductivity and hardness, Diamond MEMS offer the potential of outstanding performance. The high Youngs Modulus
(stiffness) enables high switching speeds. It has the highest thermal conductivity among solids allowing efficient power
dissipation lending itself to the potential integration for high power systems on chip. The University of Ulm is recognized
as a center of excellence for Diamond synthesis and device fabrication. Switches are identified in the TDM research theme as
a selected topic of high interest to the DTC.
Ferroelectric parallel-plate capacitors with copper electrodes for high-frequency applications 277k
Tommi Riekkinen, Tomi Mattila, Sebastiaan van Dijkena, A. Lüker, Qi Zhang, Paul B. Kirby and Ana M. Sánchez; APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 91, 252902 2007
Abstract: Tunable capacitors with a Cu/PbxSr1-xTiO3/Cu parallel-plate structure have been fabricated using a layer transfer method.
The use of a Cu bottom electrode results in a giant electrode Q-factor x capacitor area product of QelecA=3.79x105 µm2 at 1 GHz.
The dielectric constant at room temperature is 420 and the tunability amounts to 73% near a breakdown voltage of 35 V. The major
advantages of the layer transfer method include low electrode losses, the freedom to select an auxiliary substrate and seed layer
for ferroelectric film growth irrespective of their high-frequency properties, and the possibility to utilize a large variety of
device substrates as they no longer act as template for film growth
Band pass filters in the 1 lm spectral region: Thick metal screens 612k
A. Lüker, H. Hein, J. Schulz, N. Dambrowsky, O. Sternberg, M.J. Sweetgall, K. Abdijalilov, K.D. Möller and H. Grebel; Infrared Physics & Technology 51 (2008) 178-185
Abstract: Free standing metal screens have long been used as band pass filters in the infrared (IR) wavelength region. One adjusts the screens’
periodicity constant, its opening-to-periodicity aspect ratio and its thickness to achieve desired infrared transmission properties. Here we
concentrate on thick screens in the near IR wavelength region (1–2 lm). In addition to experiments and simulations we have considered
the role of screen imperfection on its transmission characteristics. Uneven surfaces, inclined and sometimes rough walls of the screen and
waveguide channels may be the result of thick-film lithography which is used in the process for screen manufacturing. Understanding
these effects is crucial to applications of these filters in the entire IR region.
Piezo-actuated nanodiamond cantilever technology for high-speed applications 969k
J. Kusterer, A. Lüker, P. Herfurth, Y. Men, W. Ebert, P. Kirby, M. O'Keefe, E. Kohn; Diamond & Related Materials 17 (2008) 1429–1433
Abstract: Diamond cantilever actuators show high resonance frequencies but need also high actuation forces, pointing towards piezoelectric actuation by
a PZT/diamond unimorph. In this study lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, PZT) layers have been deposited onto nanocrystalline diamond films
by sol–gel deposition, to realize high-speed MEMS actuators. The fabrication technology is based on self-aligned patterning and on optical
lithography. A mechanical resonance frequency of 3.9 MHz has been obtained for 30 µm cantilever length dominated by the nanodiamond
Young's modulus of approximately 1000 GPa.
Growth and high frequency characterization of Mn doped sol-gel PbxSr1-xTiO3 for frequency agile applications 595k
C. Fragkiadakis, A. Lüker, R. V. Wright, L. Floyd and P. B. Kirby; JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 105, 061635 2009
Abstract: In pursuit of thin film ferroelectric materials for frequency agile applications that are both easily
adapted to large area deposition and also high performance, an investigation has been carried out
into sol-gel deposition of 3% Mn doped Pb0.4Sr0.6TiO3. Large area capability has been
demonstrated by growth of films with good crystallinity and grain structure on 4 in. Si wafers.
Metal-insulator-metal capacitors have also been fabricated and development of an improved
de-embedding technique that takes parasitic impedances fully into account has enabled accurate
extraction of the high frequency dielectric properties of the PbxSr1-xTiO3 films. Practically useful
values of ε~1000, tanδ~0.03, and tunability 50% have been obtained in the low gigahertz
range 1–5 GHz. Peaks in the dielectric loss due to acoustic resonance have been modeled and
tentatively identified as due to an electrostrictive effect with an electromechanical coupling
coefficient of 0.04 at an electric field of 240 kV/cm which is potentially useful for tunable thin
film bulk acoustic wave devices.
Structural evaluation of sol–gel derived lead strontium titanate diffusion barrier for integration in lead zirconate titanate transducer design 1.893k
D. Bhattacharyya, A. Lüker, Q. Zhang, P.B. Kirby; Thin Solid Films 518 (2010) 3382–3390
Abstract: Sol–gel derived Pb40Sr60TiO3 (PST) thin film has been investigated as a diffusion barrier for integrating in
PbZr30Ti70O3 (PZT) device structures on Si substrates. PST film was deposited on SiO2/Si substrate and
annealed at a relatively low temperature range of 550–600 °C producing a crack-free, smooth and textured
surface. Following deposition on PST/SiO2/Si template PZT thin film was crystallised exhibiting random grain
orientations and an insertion of the bottom Pt/Ti electrode forming PZT/Pt/Ti/PST/SiO2/Si stacks promoted
the preferred PZT (111) perovskite phase. PZT (111) peak intensity gradually decreased along with slight
increase of the PZT (110) peak with increasing annealing temperature of the buffer PST film. The dielectric
and ferroelectric properties of the PZT with barrier PST deposited at 550 °C were assessed. The dielectric
constant and loss factor were estimated as 390 and 0.034 at 100 kHz respectively and the remnant
polarisation was 28 µC/cm2 at 19 V. The performance of the PZT/PST device structures was compared to
similar PZT transducer stacks having widely used barrier TiO2 layer.
Study of compositional change in the interfacial regions between lead strontium titanate/SiO2 and lead zirconate titanate/SiO2 by Auger emission spectroscopy 871k
Arne Lüker, Qi Zhang, Paul B. Kirby; Thin Solid Films 518 (2010) 3763–3766
Abstract: Auger spectroscopy was used to study the compositional change in the interfacial region between
ferroelectric thin films, namely lead strontium titanate (PST) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT), and
commercially available Si substrates with a 200 nm thick thermal oxide layer. Both PST and PZT thin films
were prepared via a sol–gel spin coating method. The thin films from both materials were annealed under
the same conditions (temperature and time). It was found that strontium stops the lead diffusion into SiO2
by forming SrSiO3/Sr2SiO4 and SrO, maintaining a well defined SiO2 region, while PbSiO3 is formed in the
PZT/SiO2 system. These results are important for a general understanding of interdiffusions in material
interfaces in particular for the realization of future high-dielectric-constant (high-k) oxide layers and for the
next generation of advanced electronic devices.
The Effect of Mn Doping on the Dielectric Properties of Lead Strontium Titanate (PST) 509k
Arne Lüker, Qi Zhang1 and Paul B. Kirby; Ferroelectrics - Material Aspects (2011), Edited by Mickaël Lallart, ISBN 978-953-307-332-3, Hard cover, 518 pages